HAZARDS IN IRON & STEEL INDUSTRY

Iron and steel industry is a heavy industry, involving a whole range of processes-chemical, metallurgical, mechanical, electrical, construction, road and rail traffic, materials handling, earth moving, nucleonic and many others. Each of these processes has many in-built hazards, falling broadly into three categories.

  • Those that can be eliminated: e.g. leakages of gases, dust in motor house, pollution through plant chimneys, blazing of coke ovens, narrow workspaces, etc.
  • Those that can be controlled: e.g. noise level in pump houses and turbine halls, heat level in cast houses, dust level in sintering plant, gas concentration at working levels etc.
  • Those against which protective measures need to be taken i.e. those that can neither be controlled nor eliminated: Liquid hot metal (Heat and Glare), Noise in Rolling Mills.
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    HAZARDEOUS POINT AT THE BSM PROCESS


    Ø Billet should be thrown away at the time of charging in the furnace, due to failure of inlet roller.
    Ø When furnace oil burns in furnace several gases come out like CO, Carbon dioxide, which is hazardous for health.
    Ø Electrical cables tunnels and oils cellars should be burn in high temperature.
    Ø During the process of moving of bed of furnace, sudden stop of furnace occurred due fault in the process.
    Ø Hazard may occur at the first mill stand which is also called as De-scaler machine. From which flying scale causes accident or injurious to health of operator when the billet passed through the machine, where water pressure is high about 100 bar. The flying particles are harmful for the eyes and body part.
    Ø During the process, if the pinch roller fails or break (by knocking) there should be possibility of happening major hazard or accident.
    Ø Also accident happen due to cobbles means material coming out of the process which is hazardous for the process and operator. Which may be break the link of the production.
    Ø Accident happens during the E.O.T. crane operation like loading, unloading of material and also shifting. Shifting of machine which is under maintenance.
    Ø Checking of finished product by using of acid like conc. HCL, HNO3 for the checking the quality and composition of material.
    Ø The fumes come out from this process are harmful to health. Fumes are reddish brown and smell is pungent.
    Ø During operation of E.O.T. and magnetic crane in stack yard for stacking of finished product. Due to the failure of current, horse play, negligence of operator, lack of training to operator.

    INSTRUMENTATIONS AND PROCESS CONTROL

    Mechanical workshops; electrical repair shops; refrigeration and air-conditioning systems; electronic data processing systems; fire services; safety engg. Services and pollution control.

    1. PROJECT AND CONSTRUCTION DIVISION
    2. APPROACH TO HAZARD CONTROL



    One basic approach to any hazard control has been that in the first place, the hazard to be controlled has to be controlled has to be identified. A typical “safety hazards and emergency steps” should be studied. Such studies are made shop-wise and process control sheets are prepared indicating the hazards involved. Safety measures required and the safety appliances needed norms are to be taken from those prescribed under the factories act and rules, environment, water and air pollution act and rules.

    ABOUT TRAINING :

    Merely having updated safety books is not enough If these are to be strictly followed, regular on the job training is essential for the operation on the machines and producer and for the employees in there respective trade. Employees have also to be trained before they are put on the job whenever there is a change of trade or transfer to another department. This is necessary to acquaint themselves fully with the hazards of the new trade and new work place.

    IRON AND STEEL IT HAS THREE ZONES :

    1. IRON ZONE COMPRISING OF -

    Ø Raw materials storage, preparation and handling yard.
    Ø Coke ovens and by-products plant.
    Ø Sintering plant
    Ø Blast furnaces.
    Ø Gas holders and pipe lines.

    2. STEEL ZONE COMPRISING OF -

    Ø Steel melting shop
    Ø Continuous casting shop
    Ø Oxygen plant
    Ø Slag and scrap yard
    Ø Gas holders and pipelines

    3. ROLLING MILLS ZONE COMPRISING OF -

    Ø Different rolling mills,
    Ø Gas booster stations and pipelines
    Ø Loading bays for dispatch of finished materials
    Ø Electrical cable tunnels and oil callers.

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